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Blood. 2012 Aug 23;120(8):1597-600. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-04-421883. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

Second malignancies in total therapy 2 and 3 for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: influence of thalidomide and lenalidomide during maintenance.

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Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.


Thalidomide and lenalidomide constitute an important part of effective myeloma therapy. Recent data from the Intergroup Francophone du MyƩlome, Cancer and Leukemia Group B, and Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell Adulto MM-015 trials suggest that lenalidomide maintenance therapy is associated with a higher incidence of second primary malignancies (SPMs), including both hematologic and solid malignancies. In the present study, we analyzed data from the Total Therapy 2 (TT2) trial, along with the 2 Total Therapy 3 (TT3) trials. TT2 patients were assigned randomly to either a control group (no thalidomide) or to the experimental group (thalidomide during induction, between transplantations, and during consolidation and maintenance). The 2 TT3 trials used thalidomide and bortezomib during induction, before and in consolidation after tandem melphalan-based transplantation; TT3A applied VTD (bortezomib, thalidomide, dexamethasone) in the first year of maintenance and TD for 2 more years, whereas TT3B used VRD (bortezomib, lenalidomide, dexamethasone) maintenance for 3 years. The cumulative incidence of SPMs did not differ significantly among the TT trial components when measured from enrollment (P = .78) or from initiation of maintenance (P = .82). However, a pairwise comparison of the TT2 arms suggested a lower incidence of hematologic SPMs in the thalidomide maintenance arm (hazard ratio = 0.38; P = .09). These trials are registered at as NCT00573391 (TT2), NCT00081939 (TT3A), and NCT00572169 (TT3B).

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