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Genes Cells. 2012 Jul;17(7):525-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2443.2012.01609.x. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes.

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Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.


The nuclear-cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclear transport processes have been observed in stressed cells, which would change gene expressions. Some viruses interfere with nuclear transport in host cells to evade immune defense. Moreover, certain transport factors negatively regulate nuclear protein transport in cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking not only provides important information about cellular processes, but also is of use for developing specific inhibitors for transport pathways.

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