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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Jun;1257:45-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06566.x.

Determinants contributing to claudin ion channel formation.

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Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Berlin, Germany.


Pore-forming properties of claudins (Cld) are likely defined by residues of their first extracellular loop (ECL1). Detailed mechanisms are unclear. MDCK cells overexpressing FLAG-Cld-1 wild-type and mutants were characterized by transepithelial resistance (TER) and ion permeability measurements. Replacing ECL1 residues of sealing Cld-1 by corresponding Cld-2 residues we aimed to identify new determinants responsible for sealing and/or pore formation. We found that E48K and S53E substitutions in human Cld-1 strongly reduced TER and increased permeability for Na(+) and Cl(-) . In contrast, K65D, D68S, and other single substitutions showed no significant change of TER and permeability for Na(+) and Cl(-) . Double substitution S53E/K65D did not change TER and ion permeability, whereas S53E/D68S decreased TER, albeit weaker than S53E. Ratio of permeabilities for Na(+) and Cl(-) revealed no clear charge specificity of the pore induced by S53E or S53E/D68S in Cld-1, suggesting that primarily S53 and potentially D68 in Cld-1 are involved in sealing of the paracellular cleft and that charge-unselective pores may be induced by substituting S53E.

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