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ACS Nano. 2012 Jul 24;6(7):6422-32. doi: 10.1021/nn301981p. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

Hierarchical three-dimensional microbattery electrodes combining bottom-up self-assembly and top-down micromachining.

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1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 27042, United States.

Abstract

The realization of next-generation portable electronics and integrated microsystems is directly linked with the development of robust batteries with high energy and power density. Three-dimensional micro- and nanostructured electrodes enhance energy and power through higher surface area and thinner active materials, respectively. Here, we present a novel approach for the fabrication of hierarchical electrodes that combine benefits of both length scales. The electrodes consist of self-assembled, virus-templated nanostructures conformally coating three-dimensional micropillars. Active battery material (V(2)O(5)) is deposited using atomic layer deposition on the hierarchical micro/nanonetwork. Electrochemical characterization of these electrodes indicates a 3-fold increase in energy density compared to nanostructures alone, in agreement with the surface area increase, while maintaining the high power characteristics of nanomaterials. Investigation of capacity scaling for varying active material thickness reveals underlying limitations in nanostructured electrodes and highlights the importance of our method in controlling both energy and power density with structural hierarchy.

PMID:
22670634
DOI:
10.1021/nn301981p
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