Send to

Choose Destination
Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 Jul-Aug;37(4):415-22. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e318251b688.

A cross-sectional survey on prevalence and risk factors for persistent postsurgical pain 1 year after total hip and knee replacement.

Author information

Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.



There is a paucity of large multi-institutional surveys to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for persistent pain after total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacements. We surveyed a variety of practices and patients and also correlated persistent pain with health-related quality-of-life outcomes.


From October 10, 2007, to March 15, 2010, patients who had undergone primary THR or TKR with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were identified. A previously published questionnaire to identify persistent postsurgical pain that included a 36-item Short Form Health Survey was mailed to this group. Independent risk factors for persistent pain were identified with logistic regression.


Responses from 1030 patients who underwent surgery at some point in time between June 13, 2006, and June 24, 2009, were analyzed (32% response rate). Forty-six percent of patients reported persistent pain (38% after THR and 53% after TKR) with a median average pain score of 3 of 10 and worst pain score of 5. Independent risk factors for persistent pain were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.23), younger age (OR, 0.97), prior surgery on hip or knee (OR, 1.39), knee versus hip replacement (OR, 1.65), lower-quality postsurgical pain control (OR, 0.9), and presence of pain in other areas of the body (OR, 2.09). All scores in the 36-item Short Form Health Survey were worse (8%-28% decrease) in patients with persistent postsurgical pain (P < 0.001).


Persistent postsurgical pain is common after THR and TKR and is associated with reduced health-related quality of life, although our survey may be biased by the low response rate and retrospective recall bias. Nonmodifiable risk factors may lead to risk stratification. Severity of acute postoperative pain may be a modifiable risk factor.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center