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Opt Lett. 2012 Jun 1;37(11):1817-9. doi: 10.1364/OL.37.001817.

A spectrally constrained dual-band normalization technique for protoporphyrin IX quantification in fluorescence-guided surgery.

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Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.


We report a dual-band normalization technique for in vivo quantification of the metabolic biomarker, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), during brain tumor resection procedures. The accuracy of the approach was optimized in tissue simulating phantoms with varying absorption and scattering properties, validated with fluorimetric assessments on ex vivo brain tissue, and tested on human data acquired in vivo during fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors. The results demonstrate that the dual-band normalization technique allows PpIX concentrations to be accurately quantified by correction with reflectance data recorded and integrated within only two narrow wavelength intervals. The simplicity of the method lends itself to the enticing prospect that the method could be applicable to wide-field applications in quantitative fluorescence imaging and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy.

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