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Gene. 2012 Aug 15;505(1):57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.05.049. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

The complete mitochondrial genome of Pauropus longiramus (Myriapoda: Pauropoda): implications on early diversification of the myriapods revealed from comparative analysis.

Author information

1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046, China.

Abstract

Myriapods are among the earliest arthropods and may have evolved to become part of the terrestrial biota more than 400 million years ago. A noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from Pauropoda hampers phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within the subphylum Myriapoda. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a microscopic pauropod, Pauropus longiramus (Arthropoda: Myriapoda), and conducted comprehensive mitogenomic analyses across the Myriapoda. The pauropod mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 14,487 bp long and contains the entire set of thirty-seven genes. Frequent intergenic overlaps occurred between adjacent tRNAs, and between tRNA and protein-coding genes. This is the first example of a mitochondrial genome with multiple intergenic overlaps and reveals a strategy for arthropods to effectively compact the mitochondrial genome by overlapping and truncating tRNA genes with neighbor genes, instead of only truncating tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes provide strong evidence that the sister group of Pauropoda is Symphyla. Additionally, approximately unbiased (AU) tests strongly support the Progoneata and confirm the basal position of Chilopoda in Myriapoda. This study provides an estimation of myriapod origins around 555 Ma (95% CI: 444-704 Ma) and this date is comparable with that of the Cambrian explosion and candidate myriapod-like fossils. A new time-scale suggests that deep radiations during early myriapod diversification occurred at least three times, not once as previously proposed. A Carboniferous origin of pauropods is congruent with the idea that these taxa are derived, rather than basal, progoneatans.

PMID:
22659693
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2012.05.049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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