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Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2012 Aug;15(4):358-66. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2012.05.002. Epub 2012 May 31.

Non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases are associated with innate immune receptors that recognize conserved microbial signatures.

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USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430, United States.


An important question in the field of plant-pathogen interactions is how the detection of pathogens is converted into an effective immune response. In recent years, substantial insight has been gained into the identities of both the plant receptors and the microbial molecules they recognize. Likewise, many of the downstream signaling proteins and transcriptions factors that activate defense responses have been characterized. However, the early molecular events that comprise 'recognition' and how defense signaling specificity is achieved are not as well understood. In this review we discuss the significance of non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases, a subclass of kinases that are often found in association with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).

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