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Indian J Microbiol. 2011 Jun;51(2):223-9. doi: 10.1007/s12088-011-0168-4. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

Comparative Seroepidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Infection using Microimmunofluorescence, Enzyme Immunoassay and Neutralization Test: Implications for Serodiagnosis.


A seroepidemiologic study using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) technique was conducted to determine the prevalence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae IgG antibodies among 205 healthy Singapore university undergraduates using the MRL Diagnostics MIF test kit. The overall seroprevalence was 35.1% with significantly higher seropositivity rates among males than females (48.2 vs. 18.7%, P < 0.001). A comparative study using the Labsystems MIF test kit was conducted on sera from 192 students. Using the MRL MIF test as the reference, the sensitivity and specificity of Labsystems MIF test were 92.6 and 87.9%, respectively. A total of 78 samples comprising 15 MIF-negative and 63 MIF-positive samples were also tested for complement-independent neutralizing antibodies in vitro. All the 78 samples and 11 additional MIF-negative samples were also tested for IgM, IgG and IgA against C. pneumoniae by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using the Labsystems EIA test kit. None of these 89 samples were seropositive for IgM. The percentages of IgG and IgA seropositivity increased with increasing grades of MIF-positivity. Among the IgG seropositive samples, 69.1% were also positive for IgA, suggesting that a high proportion of infected individuals also had IgA antibodies denoting chronicity. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 22.2% of MIF-positive sera, but only in 6.7% of MIF-negative sera. 26.4 and 34.2% of samples which were IgG and IgA seropositive respectively also exhibited neutralizing activity. The percentages of MIF-positive sera with neutralizing activity increased with the grade of MIF positivity, i.e. 0% (1+), 7.1% (2+), 18.8% (3+), and 63.6% (4+). High-grade MIF positivity (particularly with MRL MIF kits) may represent a useful serologic marker of predictive value for neutralizing activity.


Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Enzyme immunoassay; Microimmunofluorescence; Neutralization test; Seroepidemiology

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