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J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Aug;50(8):2631-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00593-12. Epub 2012 May 30.

Molecular typing and resistance analysis of travel-associated Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

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  • 1Center for Biological Defense, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.


Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human pathogen causing 12 to 30% mortality and requiring antibiotic therapy to control the severity of the infection. Typhoid fever in United States is often associated with foreign travel to areas of endemicity. Increasing resistance to multiple drugs, including quinolones, is associated with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (DCS). We investigated 31 clinical strains isolated in Florida from 2007 to 2010, associated with travel to six countries, to examine the clonal distribution of the organism and apparent nalidixic acid (NAL) resistance. The strains were isolated from blood or stool of patients aged 2 to 68 years. The isolates were subtyped by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobials were determined, and the isolates were screened for integrons and gyrase A gene mutations. Both typing techniques effectively segregated the strains. Identical clones were associated with different countries, while diverse types coexisted in the same geographic location. Fifty-one percent of the strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and five were resistant to three or more drugs (multidrug resistant [MDR]). All 12 isolates from the Indian subcontinent were resistant to at least one drug, and 83% of those were resistant to NAL. Three of the MDR strains harbored a 750-bp integron containing the dfr7 gene. Ninety-three percent of the resistant strains showed a DCS profile. All the NAL-resistant strains contained point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA. This study affirms the global clonal distribution, concomitant genetic heterogeneity, and increased NAL resistance of S. enterica serovar Typhi.

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