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Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Sep;120(9):1260-4. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1204993. Epub 2012 May 31.

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas.

Author information

1
University of Texas School of Public Health, 6011 Harry Hines Blvd., V8.122E, Dallas, TX 75390-9128 USA. arnold.schecter@utsouthwestern.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used in polystyrene foams in thermal insulation and electrical equipment. The HBCD commercial mixture consists mainly of α, β, and γ stereoisomers. Health concerns of HBCD exposure include alterations in immune and reproductive systems, neurotoxic effects, and endocrine disruption. Stereoisomer-specific levels of HBCD have not been measured previously in U.S. food.

OBJECTIVES:

We measured HBCD stereoisomer levels in U.S. foods from Dallas, Texas, supermarkets.

METHODS:

Convenience samples of commonly consumed foods were purchased from supermarkets in Dallas in 2009-2010. Food samples included a wide variety of lipid-rich foods: fish, peanut butter, poultry, pork, and beef. Thirty-six individual food samples were collected in 2010 and analyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten pooled food samples previously collected in 2009 for a study of total HBCD levels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were reanalyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS.

RESULTS:

Of the 36 measured individual foods, 15 (42%) had detectable levels of HBCD. Median (ranges) of α- and γ-HBCD concentrations were 0.003 (< 0.005-1.307) and 0.005 (< 0.010-0.143) ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; β-HBCD was present in three samples with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005-0.019) ng/g ww. Median levels (range) for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, in pooled samples were 0.077 (0.010-0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002-0.070), and 0.024 (0.012-0.170) ng/g ww, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

α-HBCD was detected most frequently and at highest concentrations, followed by γ-, and then β-HBCD, in food samples from Dallas, Texas. Food may be a substantial contributor to the elevated α-HBCD levels observed in humans. These data suggest that larger and more representative sampling should be conducted.

PMID:
22647707
PMCID:
PMC3440131
DOI:
10.1289/ehp.1204993
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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