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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 12;109(24):9432-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1120761109. Epub 2012 May 30.

Nucleotide-dependent conformations of FtsZ dimers and force generation observed through molecular dynamics simulations.

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1
Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Abstract

The bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ is a GTPase that is thought to provide mechanical constriction force via an unidentified mechanism. Purified FtsZ polymerizes into filaments with varying structures in vitro: while GTP-bound FtsZ assembles into straight or gently curved filaments, GDP-bound FtsZ forms highly curved filaments, prompting the hypothesis that a difference in the inherent curvature of FtsZ filaments provides mechanical force. However, no nucleotide-dependent structural transition of FtsZ monomers has been observed to support this force generation model. Here, we present a series of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations probing the effects of nucleotide binding on the structure of an FtsZ dimer. We found that the FtsZ-dimer structure is dependent on nucleotide-binding state. While a GTP-bound FtsZ dimer retained a firm monomer-monomer contact, a GDP-bound FtsZ dimer lost some of the monomer-monomer association, leading to a "hinge-opening" event that resulted in a more bent dimer, while leaving each monomer structure largely unaffected. We constructed models of FtsZ filaments and found that a GDP-FtsZ filament is much more curved than a GTP-FtsZ filament, with the degree of curvature matching prior experimental data. FtsZ dynamics were used to estimate the amount of force an FtsZ filament could exert when hydrolysis occurs (20-30 pN per monomer). This magnitude of force is sufficient to direct inward cell-wall growth during division, and to produce the observed degree of membrane pinching in liposomes. Taken together, our data provide molecular-scale insight on the origin of FtsZ-based constriction force, and the mechanism underlying prokaryotic cell division.

PMID:
22647609
PMCID:
PMC3386107
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1120761109
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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