Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Imaging Biol. 2013 Feb;15(1):114-22. doi: 10.1007/s11307-012-0563-1.

Three-dimensional turbo-spin-echo amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3-Tesla and its application to high-grade human brain tumors.

Author information

Philips Healthcare, Beijing, China.



Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is able to extend the achievable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast to the protein level. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying a turbo-spin-echo (TSE)-based, three-dimensional (3D) APT sequence into routine clinical practice for patients with brain tumors.


Experiments were performed on a Philips 3-Tesla (3-T) MRI scanner using an eight-channel phased-array coil for reception. A fast 3D APT sequence with a TSE acquisition was proposed (saturation power, 2 μT; saturation time, 500 ms; 8 slices). The gradient echo (GRE)-based field-mapping technique or water-saturation-shift-referencing (WASSR) technique was used to acquire B(0) maps to correct for B(0)-induced artifacts in APT images. The test was performed on a box of homogenous protein solution, four healthy volunteers, and eight patients with high-grade gliomas.


The experimental data from a homogenous, protein-containing phantom and healthy volunteers show that the sequence produced a uniform contrast across all slices. The average MTR(asym)(3.5 ppm) values with GRE B(0)-corrected 3D APT imaging and WASSR-corrected 3D APT imaging were both comparable to the values obtained using the undemanding single-slice acquisition. The average APT image intensity was consistently higher in the tumor core than in the peripheral edema and in the contralateral normal-appearing white matter (both P < 0.001).


3D APT imaging of brain tumors can be performed in about 5 min at 3-T using a routine, commercial eight-channel SENSE coil.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center