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Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012 Jun;15(2):144-9. doi: 10.1053/j.tvir.2012.02.007.

Reported outcomes after the endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

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Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02903, USA.


Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has recently been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). The treatment of jugular and azygous vein stenoses, characteristic of CCSVI, has been proposed as a potential component of therapy for MS. In the few short years since Dr. Paulo Zamboni published "A Prospective Open label Study of Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency", there has been tremendous patient-driven demand for treatment. Concurrently, there have been numerous publications since 2009 addressing CCSVI and its association with MS. The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of CCSVI and its association with MS and to review the available literature to date with a focus on outcomes data.

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