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Toxicol Pathol. 2012 Jun;40(4 Suppl):14S-86S. doi: 10.1177/0192623312438736.

Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse urinary system.

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GlaxoSmithKline-Safety Assessment, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, USA.


The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying lesions observed in the urinary tract of rats and mice. The standardized nomenclature of urinary tract lesions presented in this document is also available electronically on the Internet ( Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous developmental and aging lesions as well as those induced by exposure to test materials. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for urinary tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.

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