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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 Jul 15;303(2):H156-67. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00333.2012. Epub 2012 May 25.

The continuing evolution of the Langendorff and ejecting murine heart: new advances in cardiac phenotyping.

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Cardiac Muscle Research Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.


The isolated retrograde-perfused Langendorff heart and the isolated ejecting heart have, over many decades, resulted in fundamental discoveries that form the underpinnings of our current understanding of the biology and physiology of the heart. These two experimental methodologies have proven invaluable in studying pharmacological effects on myocardial function, metabolism, and vascular reactivity and in the investigation of clinically relevant disease states such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes, obesity, and heart failure. With the advent of the genomics era, the isolated mouse heart preparation has gained prominence as an ex vivo research tool for investigators studying the impact of gene modification in the intact heart. This review summarizes the historical development of the isolated heart and provides a practical guide for the establishment of the Langendorff and ejecting heart preparations with a particular emphasis on the murine heart. In addition, current applications and novel methods of recording cardiovascular parameters in the isolated heart preparation will be discussed. With continued advances in methodological recordings, the isolated mouse heart preparation will remain physiologically relevant for the foreseeable future, serving as an integral bridge between in vitro assays and in vivo approaches.

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