Send to

Choose Destination
Microbes Infect. 2012 Nov;14(14):1271-7. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2012.05.009. Epub 2012 May 23.

Role of extracellular nucleotides in the immune response against intracellular bacteria and protozoan parasites.

Author information

Biophysics Institute Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil.


Extracellular nucleotides are danger signals involved in recognition and control of intracellular pathogens. They are an important component of the innate immune response against intracellular pathogens, inducing the recruitment of inflammatory cells, stimulating secretion of cytokines, and producing inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the case of extracellular ATP, some of the immune responses are mediated through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of the cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), through a mechanism dependent on ligation of the P2X7 receptor. Here we review the role of extracellular nucleotides as sensors of intracellular bacteria and protozoan parasites, and discuss how these pathogens manipulate purinergic signaling to diminish the immune response against infection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center