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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012 Aug;33(2):455-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.05.020. Epub 2012 May 22.

Immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects of atrazine, permethrin and piperonyl butoxide to rainbow trout following in vitro exposure.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, Canada.


For many current use pesticides, limited information exists on their cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity in non-target organisms such as fish. We examined the effects of atrazine, permethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) exposure, in vitro, on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) lymphocyte viability and proliferation. Purified rainbow trout peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) were exposed in vitro to the test chemicals (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 μM) for 96 h, with and without the mitogen lipopolysaccharide. All three chemicals caused a decrease in both lymphocyte viability and proliferation at 10 μM, while atrazine also suppressed proliferation of PBLs at 1 μM. The in vitro toxicity of these chemicals to this salmonid underscores the need for further investigation using in vivo studies and host resistance models.

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