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Metabolism. 2012 Nov;61(11):1572-81. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.04.007. Epub 2012 May 26.

A low-fat dietary pattern and risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative.

Author information

1
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. mneuhous@fhcrc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Nutrition plays an important role in metabolic syndrome etiology. We examined whether the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification Trial influenced metabolic syndrome risk.

MATERIALS/METHODS:

48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years were randomized to a low-fat (20% energy from fat) diet (intervention) or usual diet (comparison) for a mean of 8.1 years. Blood pressure, waist circumference and fasting blood measures of glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured on a subsample (n=2816) at baseline and years 1, 3 and 6 post-randomization. Logistic regression estimated associations of the intervention with metabolic syndrome risk and use of cholesterol-lowering and hypertension medications. Multivariate linear regression tested associations between the intervention and metabolic syndrome components.

RESULTS:

At year 3, but not years 1 or 6, women in the intervention group (vs. comparison) had a non-statistically significant lower risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.83, 95%CI 0.59-1.18). Linear regression models simultaneously modeling the five metabolic syndrome components revealed significant associations of the intervention with metabolic syndrome at year 1 (p<0.0001), but not years 3 (p=0.19) and 6 (p=0.17). Analyses restricted to intervention-adherent participants strengthened associations at years 3 (p=0.05) and 6 (p=0.06). Cholesterol-lowering and hypertension medication use was 19% lower at year 1 for intervention vs. comparison group women (OR=0.81, 95% CI 0.60-1.09).Over the entire trial, fewer intervention vs. comparison participants used these medications (26.0% vs. 29.9%), although results were not statistically significant (p=0.89).

CONCLUSIONS:

The WHI low-fat diet may influence metabolic syndrome risk and decrease use of hypertension and cholesterol-lowering medications. Findings have potential for meaningful clinical translation.

PMID:
22633601
PMCID:
PMC3430820
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2012.04.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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