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Am J Cardiol. 2012 Sep 1;110(5):683-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.04.056. Epub 2012 May 25.

Usefulness of hemoglobin A(1c) to predict outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure.

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Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.


Patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF) have worse clinical outcomes compared to patients with HF without diabetes after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients with HF and diabetes represent a growing population at high risk for cardiovascular events and are increasingly treated with CRT. Although patients with diabetes and HF appear to benefit from CRT, their clinical outcomes are worse than those of patients without diabetes after CRT. The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictors that explain the differential hazard in patients with diabetes. We studied 442 patients (169 with diabetes) with systolic HF referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital CRT clinic from 2003 to 2010 to identify predictors of outcomes after CRT in patients with HF and diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to have ischemic causes of HF than those without diabetes, but there was no difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction or HF classification at implantation. Patients with diabetes had poorer event-free survival (death or HF hospitalization) compared to those without diabetes (log-rank p = 0.04). The presence of diabetes was the most important independent predictor of differential outcomes in the entire population (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.51). Patients with diabetes receiving insulin therapy had poorer survival, whereas those not receiving insulin therapy had similar survival to patients without diabetes. Patients with peri-implantation glycosylated hemoglobin >7% had worse outcomes, whereas patients with glycosylated hemoglobin ≤7% had improved survival (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.86) equivalent to that of patients without diabetes. In conclusion, although the presence of diabetes, independent of other variables, increases the hazard of worse outcomes after CRT, there is additional risk conferred by insulin use and suboptimal peri-implantation glycemic control.

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