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J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012 Apr;3(2):138-42. doi: 10.4103/0976-500X.95511.

Patient factors impacting antiretroviral drug adherence in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos/APIN Centre, Jos, Nigeria.



To study the adherence levels and explore factors impacting them in out-patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria antiretroviral clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.


We administered a structured questionnaire to 461 patients presenting to the clinic. Adherence was measured using the patient self-report. The association between independent variables and adherence to ART was measured through odd ratios (OR) in the univariate analysis. The best predictors of adherence were determined through multiple logistic regression models with backward elimination.


The adherence level was found to be 87.9%. The following factors were found to have strong impact on adherence in the univariate analysis: age (OR 1.04), sex (OR 1.14), employment (OR 1.29), knowledge of HIV (OR 1.11), thrice daily frequency of drug intake (OR 1.68), twice daily frequency (OR 2.18), alcohol nonintake (OR 0.29), knowledge of ARVs (OR 1.23), pill burden (OR 1.20), and HIV status disclosure (OR 1.08). In the multivariate analysis, only age, alcohol nonintake and twice daily, frequency of drug intake affected adherence (P < 0.05).


To increase adherence and the effectiveness of ART, there is need to continuously emphasize the use of adherence devices and reminders. Counseling and adherence education should also be emphasized especially for younger patients and those with low educational levels.


Adherence; HIV/AIDS; antiretroviral; patients

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