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Science. 2012 May 25;336(6084):1007-10. doi: 10.1126/science.1216511.

Unidirectional growth of microbumps on (111)-oriented and nanotwinned copper.

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1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Abstract

Highly oriented [111] Cu grains with densely packed nanotwins have been fabricated by direct-current electroplating with a high stirring rate. The [111]-oriented and nanotwinned Cu (nt-Cu) allow for the unidirectional growth of Cu(6)Sn(5) intermetallics in the microbumps of three-dimensional integrated-circuit packaging; a uniform microstructure in a large number of microbumps of controlled orientation can be obtained. The high-density twin boundaries in the nt-Cu serve as vacancy sinks during the solid-state reaction between Pb-free solder and Cu and greatly reduce the formation of Kirkendall (or Frenkel) voids.

PMID:
22628648
DOI:
10.1126/science.1216511
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