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Kidney Int. 2012 Sep;82(6):643-51. doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.170. Epub 2012 May 23.

Aldosterone deficiency and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism prevent angiotensin II-induced cardiac, renal, and vascular injury.

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1
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. James.Luther@Vanderbilt.edu

Abstract

Angiotensin II causes cardiovascular injury in part by aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and it can also activate the mineralocorticoid receptor in the absence of aldosterone in vitro. Here we tested whether endogenous aldosterone contributes to angiotensin II/salt-induced cardiac, vascular, and renal injury by the mineralocorticoid receptor. Aldosterone synthase knockout mice and wild-type littermates were treated with angiotensin II or vehicle plus the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone or regular diet while drinking 0.9% saline. Angiotensin II/salt caused hypertension in both the knockout and wild-type mice, an effect significantly blunted in the knockout mice. Either genetic aldosterone deficiency or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism reduced cardiac hypertrophy, aortic remodeling, and albuminuria, as well as cardiac, aortic, and renal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression during angiotensin II treatment. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism reduced angiotensin II/salt-induced glomerular hypertrophy, but aldosterone deficiency did not. Combined mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism and aldosterone deficiency reduced blood urea nitrogen and restored nephrin immunoreactivity. Angiotensin II/salt also promoted glomerular injury through the mineralocorticoid receptor in the absence of aldosterone. Thus, mineralocorticoid antagonism may have protective effects in the kidney beyond aldosterone synthase inhibition.

PMID:
22622494
PMCID:
PMC3434275
DOI:
10.1038/ki.2012.170
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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