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J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2012 Apr;62(4):431-42.

Development of outcome-based, multipollutant mobile source indicators.

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School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.


Multipollutant indicators of mobile source impacts are developed from readily available CO, NOx, and elemental carbon (EC) data for use in air quality and epidemiologic analysis. Two types of outcome-based Integrated Mobile Source Indicators (IMSI) are assessed. The first is derived from analysis of emissions of EC, CO, and NOx such that pollutant concentrations are mixed and weighted based on emission ratios for both gasoline and diesel vehicles. The emission-based indicators (IMSI(EB)) capture the impact of mobile sources on air quality estimated from receptor models and their uncertainty is comparable to measurement and source apportionment uncertainties. The IMSI(EB) have larger correlation between two different receptor sites impacted by traffic than single pollutants, suggesting they are better indicators of the local impact ofmobile sources. A sensitivity analysis of fractions of pollutants in a two-pollutant mixture and the inclusion in an epidemiologic model is conducted to develop a second set of indicators based on health outcomes. The health-based indicators (IMSI(HB)) are weighted combinations of CO, NOx, and EC pairs that have the lowest P value in their association with cardiovascular disease emergency department visits, possibly due to their better spatial representativeness. These outcome-based, multipollutant indicators can provide support for the setting of multipollutant air quality standards and other air quality management activities.

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