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PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36685. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036685. Epub 2012 May 16.

Genetic diversity of the genus Cosavirus in the family Picornaviridae: a new species, recombination, and 26 new genotypes.

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Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America.


The proposed viral genus human Cosavirus (HCoSV) consists of diverse picornaviruses found at high prevalence in the feces of children from developing countries. We sequenced four near-full length genomes and 45 partial VP1 region from HCoSV in human feces from healthy children and children with acute flaccid paralysis in Pakistan, Nigeria and Tunisia and from healthy and diarrhetic adults in Nepal. Genetic analyses of the near-full length genomes revealed presence of a new candidate cosavirus species provisionally labelled as species F (HCoSV-F). A HCoSV genome showed evidence of recombination between species D and E viruses at the P1/P2 junction indicating that these viruses may be reclassified as a single highly diverse species. Based on genetic distance criteria for assigning genotypes corresponding to neutralization serotypes in enteroviruses we identified 26 new HCoSV genotypes belonging to species A, D, and E. The detection of a large number of HCoSV genotypes based on still limited geographic sampling indicates that the phenotypic effects of cosaviruses on infected subjects are likely to be as highly diverse as those of human enteroviruses.

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