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Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Feb;15(2):355-63. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts130. Epub 2012 May 21.

A longitudinal evaluation of fruit and vegetable consumption and cigarette smoking.

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Department of Community Health and Health Behavior, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214-8028, USA.



Cross-sectional studies consistently find that cigarette smokers consume fewer fruits and vegetables each day than do nonsmokers. However, there are no published cohort studies on this relationship. This study evaluated the longitudinal relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and cigarette smoking, including measures of dependence and abstinence in a national population-based cohort analysis.


A national random-digit-dialed sample of 1,000 smokers (aged 25 years and older) assessed baseline FVC and indicators of general health orientation. Multivariable analyses were used to assess whether baseline FVC was associated with smoking intensity, time to first cigarette (TTFC), and total score on an abbreviated version of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and household income. The study also assessed whether baseline FVC predicted 30-day abstinence from all tobacco products at 14-month follow-up among baseline cigarette smokers, with additional adjustment for indicators of general health orientation (heavy drinking, exercise, and illicit drug use).


Higher FVC was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked per day, longer TTFC, and lower NDSS score. Those in the highest quartile of FVC were 3.05 times more likely (p < .01) than those in the lowest quartile to be abstinent for at least 30 days at follow-up.


FVC was inversely associated with indicators of nicotine dependence and predicted abstinence at follow-up among baseline cigarette smokers. Further observational studies and experimental research would provide useful information on the consistency of the relationship and help elucidate possible mechanisms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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