Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Climacteric. 2012 Jun;15(3):267-74. doi: 10.3109/13697137.2012.657589.

The use of hormone therapy for the maintenance of urogynecological and sexual health post WHI.

Author information

  • 1Research Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS S. Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Italy.



The loss of estrogen at menopause and the gradual decline in testosterone with age are associated with urogenital atrophy and, as a result, urogenital tract symptoms, including lower urinary tract symptoms and dyspareunia. These symptoms will persist unless treated.


To review the prevalence of urogenital tract symptoms and sexual health problems associated with menopause and the role in the use of hormone therapy for the treatment of symptomatic women, with a specific focus on what has been learned since the first publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen and estrogen + progestin studies.


Studies support the use of local estrogen therapy, but not systemic estrogen therapy, for the treatment of urge urinary incontinence, overactive bladder and to reduce the number of urinary tract infections. The current evidence does not favor a beneficial effect on stress urinary incontinence. Local estrogen therapy is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia caused by vulvovaginal atrophy. Preliminary studies suggest a potential role for both intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in the treatment of dyspareunia secondary to vulvovaginal atrophy, however, confirmatory studies are required before either therapy can be recommended. Post WHI, there is a need for medical practitioners to proactively raise the topic of urogynecological and sexual health in order to discuss the most suitable treatment option.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Taylor & Francis
    Loading ...
    Support Center