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Nanoscale. 2012 Jun 21;4(12):3781-5. doi: 10.1039/c2nr30364g. Epub 2012 May 21.

Chemical modification of graphene characterized by Raman and transport experiments.

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Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.


A chemical approach to modify the electronic transport of graphene is investigated by detailed transport and Raman spectroscopy measurements on Hall bar shaped samples. The functionalization of graphene with nitrobenzene diazonium ions results in a strong p-doping of the graphene samples and only slightly lower mobilities. Comparing Raman and transport data taken after each functionalization step allowed the conclusion that two preferential reactions take place on the graphene surface. In the beginning a few nitrobenzene molecules are directly attached to the graphene atoms creating defects. Afterwards these act as seeds for a polymer like growth not directly connected to the graphene atoms. The effects of solvents were excluded by thorough control measurements.

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