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Carcinogenesis. 2012 Jul;33(7):1352-9. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgs175. Epub 2012 May 18.

Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer.

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Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.


Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene-diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies.

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