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Environ Pollut. 2012 Sep;168:145-50. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.04.024. Epub 2012 May 19.

Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758).

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Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.


Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC(50) = 0.490 mg L(-1)) and embryo-larval development (IC(50) = 0.135 mg L(-1)) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L(-1), demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound.

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