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Semin Dial. 2012 May;25(3):334-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2012.01084.x.

Fat-soluble vitamins in advanced CKD/ESKD: a review.

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Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.


Patients requiring dialysis often experience a significant decline in their nutritional status through a combination of chronic disease, reduced appetite, and dietary restrictions, which places them at risk for vitamin deficiencies. The concept of vitamin deficiency has evolved from obvious deficiency states to the subtle effects that suboptimal intake may have on chronic disease prevalence or progression. The purpose of this study was to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the status of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis.

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