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J Oral Rehabil. 2012 Sep;39(9):668-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2012.02313.x. Epub 2012 May 19.

Risk factors for bruxism among Croatian navy employees.

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Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between bruxism, and sociodemographic parameters, symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), personality and war experience among Croatian navy employees. The sample included 1092 subjects, aged 20-60 years (mean age 37·06 ± 7·85). An individual's bruxism status was based on clinical oral examination and participants' report of bruxism. Subjects with bruxism index values ≥ 90th percentile were included in severe bruxism group (n = 111), and those with scores below 90th percentile were labelled as negligible bruxism group (n = 981). No differences were found in gender distribution between the two groups. The proportion of military personnel presenting with bruxism is double the proportion of administrative employees with bruxism. A total of 23·34% subjects in negligible bruxism group and 48·65% in severe bruxism group participated in the war. Subjects in severe bruxism group presented more TMD-related signs and symptoms than those in negligible bruxism group. Higher prevalence of neuroticism and psychoticism was found in severe bruxism group. According to logistic regression, the probability of severe bruxism was significantly associated with marital status [Odds ratio (OR) 6·859, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·869-12·158 P < 0·001], neuroticism (OR 2·842, 95% CI 1·434-5·632 P = 0·003), psychoticism (OR 2·618, 95% CI 1·193-5·746 P = 0·016), military duty (OR 1·828, 95% CI 1·013-3·298 P = 0·045) and masticatory muscles tenderness (OR 9·372, 95% CI 4·923-17·841 P < 0·001). Smokers had a 2·72-fold (95% CI 1·706-4·335 P < 0·001) higher risk of bruxism than non-smokers. Subjects who participated in war were more represented in severe bruxism group. Further studies, including other potential risk factors, are required to clarify these relationships.

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