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Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013 Dec;20(6):1095-105. doi: 10.1177/2047487312449414. Epub 2012 May 17.

Optimal type 2 diabetes mellitus management: the randomised controlled OPTIMISE benchmarking study: baseline results from six European countries.

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  • 1Endocrinology & Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Belgium.



Micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes have an adverse impact on survival, quality of life and healthcare costs. The OPTIMISE (OPtimal Type 2 dIabetes Management Including benchmarking and Standard trEatment) trial comparing physicians' individual performances with a peer group evaluates the hypothesis that benchmarking, using assessments of change in three critical quality indicators of vascular risk: glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), may improve quality of care in type 2 diabetes in the primary care setting.


This was a randomised, controlled study of 3980 patients with type 2 diabetes.


Six European countries participated in the OPTIMISE study (NCT00681850). Quality of care was assessed by the percentage of patients achieving pre-set targets for the three critical quality indicators over 12 months. Physicians were randomly assigned to receive either benchmarked or non-benchmarked feedback. All physicians received feedback on six of their patients' modifiable outcome indicators (HbA1c, fasting glycaemia, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C and triglycerides). Physicians in the benchmarking group additionally received information on levels of control achieved for the three critical quality indicators compared with colleagues.


At baseline, the percentage of evaluable patients (N = 3980) achieving pre-set targets was 51.2% (HbA1c; n = 2028/3964); 34.9% (LDL-C; n = 1350/3865); 27.3% (systolic blood pressure; n = 911/3337).


OPTIMISE confirms that target achievement in the primary care setting is suboptimal for all three critical quality indicators. This represents an unmet but modifiable need to revisit the mechanisms and management of improving care in type 2 diabetes. OPTIMISE will help to assess whether benchmarking is a useful clinical tool for improving outcomes in type 2 diabetes.


LDL-cholesterol; Type 2 diabetes; benchmarking; glycated haemoglobin; primary healthcare; quality of care; systolic blood pressure

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