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Biochem Res Int. 2012;2012:896751. doi: 10.1155/2012/896751. Epub 2012 Apr 24.

Mitochondria: redox metabolism and dysfunction.

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1
ROS, Apoptosis and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597.

Abstract

Mitochondria are the main intracellular location for fuel generation; however, they are not just power plants but involved in a range of other intracellular functions including regulation of redox homeostasis and cell fate. Dysfunction of mitochondria will result in oxidative stress which is one of the underlying causal factors for a variety of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In this paper, generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the mitochondria, redox regulatory roles of certain mitochondrial proteins, and the impact on cell fate will be discussed. The current state of our understanding in mitochondrial dysfunction in pathological states and how we could target them for therapeutic purpose will also be briefly reviewed.

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