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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Sep 1;61(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31825a289b.

Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic relationships among acute and early HIV-1-infected individuals in New York City.

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The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA.



Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is critical to managing HIV-1-infected individuals and being a public health concern. We report on TDR prevalence and include analyses of phylogenetic clustering of HIV-1 in a predominantly men who have sex with men cohort diagnosed during acute/recent HIV-1 infection in New York City.


Genotypic resistance testing was conducted on plasma samples of 600 individuals with acute/recent HIV-1 infection (1995-2010). Sequences were used for resistance and phylogenetic analyses. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. TDR was defined according to International AIDS Society-USA and Stanford HIV database guidelines. Phylogenetic and other analyses were conducted using PAUP*4.0 and SAS, respectively.


The mean duration since HIV-1 infection was 66.5 days. TDR prevalence was 14.3% and stably ranged between 10.8% and 21.6% (P(trend) = 0.42). Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors resistance declined from 15.5% to 2.7% over the study period (P(trend) = 0.005). M41L (3.7%), T215Y (4.0%), and K103N/S (4.7%) were the most common mutations. K103N/S prevalence increased from 1.9% to 8.0% between 1995 and 2010 (P(trend) = 0.04). Using a rigorous definition of clustering, 19.3% (112 of 581) of subtype B viral sequences cosegregated into transmission clusters and clusters increased over time. There were fewer and smaller transmission clusters than had been reported in a similar cohort in Montreal but similar to reports from elsewhere.


TDR is stable in this cohort and remains a significant concern to both individual patient management and the public health.

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