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Dent Mater. 2012 Aug;28(8):842-52. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2012 May 14.

Effect of quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticle-containing adhesives on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms.

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Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering Division, Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.



Antibacterial bonding agents are promising to hinder the residual and invading bacteria at the tooth-restoration interfaces. The objectives of this study were to develop an antibacterial bonding agent by incorporation of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effect of QADM-NAg adhesive and primer on dentin bond strength and plaque microcosm biofilm response for the first time.


Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer were used as control. Experimental adhesive and primer were made by adding QADM and NAg into control adhesive and primer. Human dentin shear bond strengths were measured (n = 10). A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, lactic acid production, and live/dead staining assay (n = 6).


Adding QADM and NAg into adhesive and primer did not compromise the dentin shear bond strength which ranged from 30 to 35MPa (p>0.1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations revealed numerous resin tags, which were similar for the control and the QADM and NAg groups. Adding QADM or NAg markedly reduced the biofilm viability, compared to adhesive control. QADM and NAg together in the adhesive had a much stronger antibacterial effect than using each agent alone (p<0.05). Adding QADM and NAg in both adhesive and primer had the strongest antibacterial activity, reducing metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid by an order of magnitude, compared to control.


Without compromising dentin bond strength and resin tag formation, the QADM and NAg containing adhesive and primer achieved strong antibacterial effects against microcosm biofilms for the first time. QADM-NAg adhesive and primer are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at the margins, thereby to inhibit secondary caries. QADM and NAg incorporation may have a wide applicability to other dental bonding systems.

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