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J Surg Res. 2012 Oct;177(2):341-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2012.04.035. Epub 2012 May 8.

Aortic balloon occlusion is effective in controlling pelvic hemorrhage.

Author information

1
59th Clinical Research Division, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitative endovascular aortic balloon occlusion (REBOA) of the distal aorta in a porcine model of pelvic hemorrhage.

METHODS:

Swine were entered into three phases of study: injury (iliac artery), hemorrhage (45 s), and intervention (180 min). Three groups were studied: no intervention (NI, n = 7), a kaolin-impregnated gauze (Combat Gauze) (CG, n = 7), or REBOA (n = 7). The protocol was repeated with a dilutional coagulopathy (CG-C, n = 7, and REBOA-C, n = 7). Measures of physiology, rates of hemorrhage, and mortality were recorded.

RESULTS:

Rate of hemorrhage was greatest in the NI group, followed by the REBOA and CG groups (822 ± 415 mL/min versus 11 ± 13 and 0.2 ± 0.4 mL/min respectively; P < 0.001). MAP following intervention (at 15 min) was the same in the CG and REBOA groups and higher than in the NI group (70 ± 4 and 70 ± 11 mm Hg versus 5 ± 13 mm Hg respectively; P < 0.001). There was 100% mortality in the NI group, with no deaths in the CG or REBOA group. In the setting of coagulopathy, the rate of bleeding was higher in the CG-C versus the REBOA-C group (229 ± 295 mL/min versus 20 ± 7 mL/min, P = 0.085). MAP following intervention (15 min) was higher in the REBOA-C than the CG-C group (71 ± 12 mm Hg versus 28 ± 31 mm Hg; P = 0.005). There were 5 deaths (71.4%) in the CG-C group, but none in the REBOA-C group (P = 0.010).

CONCLUSION:

Balloon occlusion of the aorta is an effective method to control pelvic arterial hemorrhage. This technique should be further developed as an adjunct to manage noncompressible pelvic hemorrhage.

PMID:
22591921
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2012.04.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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