Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Sarcoma Res. 2012 Feb 1;2(1):6. doi: 10.1186/2045-3329-2-6.

Molecular pathogenesis and targeted therapeutics in Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumours.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Oncology, St, Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. fergalkelleher@hotmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ewing sarcoma/PNET is managed with treatment paradigms involving combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and sometimes radiation. Although the 5-year survival rate of non-metastatic disease approaches 70%, those cases that are metastatic and those that recur have 5-year survival rates of less than 20%. Molecularly targeted treatments offer the potential to further improve treatment outcomes.

METHODS:

A PUBMED search was performed from 1997 to 2011. Published literature that included the topic of the Ewing sarcoma/PNET was also referenced.

RESULTS:

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antagonists have demonstrated modest single agent efficacy in phase I/II clinical trials in Ewing sarcoma/PNET, but have a strong preclinical rationale. Based on in vitro and animal data, treatment using antisense RNA and cDNA oligonucleotides directed at silencing the EWS-FLI chimera that occurs in most Ewing sarcoma/PNET may have potential therapeutic importance. However drug delivery and degradation problems may limit this therapeutic approach. Protein-protein interactions can be targeted by inhibition of RNA helicase A, which binds to EWS/FLI as part of the transcriptional complex. Tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand induction using interferon has been used in preclinical models. Interferons may be incorporated into future chemotherapeutic treatment paradigms. Histone deacetylase inhibitors can restore TGF-β receptor II allowing TFF-β signalling, which appears to inhibit growth of Ewing sarcoma/PNET cell lines in vitro. Immunotherapy using allogeneic natural killer cells has activity in Ewing sarcoma/PNET cell lines and xenograft models. Finally, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as flavopiridol may be clinically efficacious in relapsed Ewing sarcoma/PNET.

CONCLUSION:

Preclinical evidence exists that targeted therapeutics may be efficacious in the ESFT. IGF-1R antagonists have demonstrated efficacy in phase I/II clinical trials, although predicting responses remains a challenge. The future treatment of Ewing sarcoma/PNET is likely to be improved by these scientific advances.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center