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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Aug;67(8):1824-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks163. Epub 2012 May 10.

Detection of the staphylococcal multiresistance gene cfr in Macrococcus caseolyticus and Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis.

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Key Laboratory of Development and Evaluation of Chemical and Herbal Drugs for Animal Use, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P. R. China.



To investigate the presence and the genetic environment of the multiresistance gene cfr in Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis and Macrococcus caseolyticus from pigs.


A total of 391 bacterial isolates with florfenicol MICs ≥16 mg/L were obtained from nasal swabs of 557 individual pigs; of these, 75 Gram-positive isolates other than staphylococci and enterococci were screened by PCR for the presence of known florfenicol resistance genes. Species assignments of the cfr-carrying isolates were based on the results of biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. The locations of the cfr gene were determined by Southern blotting. Regions flanking each cfr gene were sequenced by a modified random primer walking strategy, and the transferability of cfr was assessed by electrotransformation.


Two M. caseolyticus isolates and one J. pinnipedialis isolate were cfr positive. The cfr gene was located either on a 7057 bp plasmid, pSS-03, which was widely distributed among staphylococci of pig origin, or on the ∼53 kb plasmid pJP1. The region of pJP1 that included the cfr gene and the adjacent IS21-558, showed 99.7% identity to the corresponding region of plasmid pSCFS3. In addition, the genes aadD + aacA-aphD, ble and erm(C), coding for aminoglycoside, bleomycin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, respectively, were also identified on plasmid pJP1.


This study showed that plasmids carrying the multidrug resistance gene cfr are present in two new genera of commensal and environmental bacteria, Macrococcus and Jeotgalicoccus. This observation underlines the role of commensal and environmental flora in the dissemination of clinically important resistance genes, such as cfr.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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