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Intern Med. 2012;51(9):1015-21. Epub 2012 Apr 29.

Bacteremia in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

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Division of Nephrology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan.



To analyze the incidence rates and risk factors for bacteremia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD).


The records of 898 consecutive patients undergoing dialysis from January 2003 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Episodes of bacteremia were recorded. China Medical University (Taichung, Taiwan).


The overall incidence rate of bacteremia was 7.63 per 100 patient-years in HD patients and 3.56 per 100 patient-years in PD patients and it was higher in HD patients each year from 2003 to 2008. S. aureus (27.53%) was the most common pathogen in HD patients, whereas Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (21.3%) was the most common pathogen in PD patients. Vascular access infection was the most common etiology in HD patients, whereas peritonitis was the most common etiology in PD patients. Older age, shorter dialysis vintage, use of HD rather than PD, current smoker, use of a venous dialysis catheter, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher comorbidity score, and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia-associated mortality.


Placement of a permanent access (fistula, graft, or PD catheter) prior to initiation of dialysis, smoking cessation, and better nutritional status (i.e. higher serum albumin) were associated with a reduced risk of bacteremia in dialysis patients. Higher serum albumin was also associated with a reduced bacteremia-associated mortality.

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