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Curr Biol. 2012 May 8;22(9):R368-79. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 May 7.

Organ size control by Hippo and TOR pathways.

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Department of Pharmacology and Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.


The determination of final organ size is a highly coordinated and complex process that relies on the precise regulation of cell number and/or cell size. Perturbation of organ size control contributes to many human diseases, including hypertrophy, degenerative diseases, and cancer. Hippo and TOR are among the key signaling pathways involved in the regulation of organ size through their respective functions in the regulation of cell number and cell size. Here, we review the general mechanisms that regulate organ growth, describe how Hippo and TOR control key aspects of growth, and discuss recent findings that highlight a possible coordination between Hippo and TOR in organ size regulation.

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