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Sensors (Basel). 2009;9(4):2320-33. doi: 10.3390/s90402320. Epub 2009 Mar 30.

An integrated photogrammetric and spatial database management system for producing fully structured data using aerial and remote sensing images.

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K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Tehran, Iran; E-Mail:


3D spatial data acquired from aerial and remote sensing images by photogrammetric techniques is one of the most accurate and economic data sources for GIS, map production, and spatial data updating. However, there are still many problems concerning storage, structuring and appropriate management of spatial data obtained using these techniques. According to the capabilities of spatial database management systems (SDBMSs); direct integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems can save time and cost of producing and updating digital maps. This integration is accomplished by replacing digital maps with a single spatial database. Applying spatial databases overcomes the problem of managing spatial and attributes data in a coupled approach. This management approach is one of the main problems in GISs for using map products of photogrammetric workstations. Also by the means of these integrated systems, providing structured spatial data, based on OGC (Open GIS Consortium) standards and topological relations between different feature classes, is possible at the time of feature digitizing process. In this paper, the integration of photogrammetric systems and SDBMSs is evaluated. Then, different levels of integration are described. Finally design, implementation and test of a software package called Integrated Photogrammetric and Oracle Spatial Systems (IPOSS) is presented.


DBMS; GIS; Integration; Photogrammetry; Remote Sensing; Spatial database; Topological relations

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