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Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012 Jun;19(3):149-58. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2012.667493.

A study of initial therapy for glaucoma in southern India: India Glaucoma Outcomes and Treatment (INGOT) Study.

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Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory and Division of Preventive Ophthalmology, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, PRC.



To compare initial glaucoma therapy with medications and trabeculectomy in southern India.


Patients aged ≥ 30 years newly diagnosed with glaucoma were randomized to trabeculectomy with 5-fluorouracil or medical therapy. Subjects with best-corrected vision <6/18 due to cataract underwent phacoemulsification (phaco/intraocular lens, IOL). Intraocular pressure (IOP), vision and visual function were assessed at 12 months.


Patients assigned to medications and surgery received the expected therapy in 86% (172/199) and 64% (126/199) of cases, respectively. Forty patients (20%) assigned to surgery refused any treatment and 33 (17%) received medications. Among 199 patients randomized to medications, 52 (26.1%) underwent phaco/IOL, as did 89/199 (43.7%) of patients randomized to trabeculectomy. Baseline parameters of the two groups did not differ, nor did 1-year follow-up rates (medication 65%, trabeculectomy 58%, P = 0.15). Final IOP was lower with randomization to trabeculectomy (16.3 ± 5.1 mmHg) than medication (18.8 ± 6.7 mmHg, P < 0.0001). In regression models, randomization to trabeculectomy (P < 0.0001) was associated with lower IOP, and simultaneous trabeculectomy and cataract surgery was associated with higher IOP (P = 0.008) than trabeculectomy alone. Subjects receiving Phaco/IOL had significantly better final acuity (P < 0.0001) and visual function (P = 0.035), despite concurrent glaucoma treatment. Final visual acuity was worse in those receiving trabeculectomy in addition to cataract surgery, but this was of borderline significance (P = 0.06).


Trabeculectomy lowered IOP significantly more than medical treatment, but with slightly greater loss of visual acuity. Combined phaco/IOL and trabeculectomy improved visual acuity with substantial IOP lowering.

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