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PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36176. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036176. Epub 2012 May 2.

Invasion history of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia region: two main invasion routes.

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Chongqing Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.


The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes.

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