Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):E1453-61. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1121465109. Epub 2012 May 7.

RIP1, a member of an Arabidopsis protein family, interacts with the protein RARE1 and broadly affects RNA editing.

Author information

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.


Transcripts of plant organelle genes are modified by cytidine-to-uridine (C-to-U) RNA editing, often changing the encoded amino acid predicted from the DNA sequence. Members of the PLS subclass of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing family are site-specific recognition factors for either chloroplast or mitochondrial C targets of editing. However, other than PPR proteins and the cis-elements on the organelle transcripts, no other components of the editing machinery in either organelle have previously been identified. The Arabidopsis chloroplast PPR protein Required for AccD RNA Editing 1 (RARE1) specifies editing of a C in the accD transcript. RARE1 was detected in a complex of >200 kDa. We immunoprecipitated epitope-tagged RARE1, and tandem MS/MS analysis identified a protein of unknown function lacking PPR motifs; we named it RNA-editing factor interacting protein 1 (RIP1). Yeast two-hybrid analysis confirmed RIP1 interaction with RARE1, and RIP1-GFP fusions were found in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Editing assays for all 34 known Arabidopsis chloroplast targets in a rip1 mutant revealed altered efficiency of 14 editing events. In mitochondria, 266 editing events were found to have reduced efficiency, with major loss of editing at 108 C targets. Virus-induced gene silencing of RIP1 confirmed the altered editing efficiency. Transient introduction of a WT RIP1 allele into rip1 improved the defective RNA editing. The presence of RIP1 in a protein complex along with chloroplast editing factor RARE1 indicates that RIP1 is an important component of the RNA editing apparatus that acts on many chloroplast and mitochondrial C targets.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center