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Genes Nutr. 2013 Jan;8(1):91-8. doi: 10.1007/s12263-012-0298-2. Epub 2012 May 8.

Transcriptomic profiles of skeletal muscle tissue following an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant obese subjects.

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1
Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Pavillon des Services, bureau 2729 K, 2440, boulevard Hochelaga, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.

Abstract

Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Muscle is mainly responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose clearance from the bloodstream. Thus, regulation of gene expression in muscle tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. The objective was to investigate gene expression and metabolic pathways alterations in skeletal muscle tissue following an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in obese insulin-resistant subjects. We carried out a transcriptome comparison of skeletal muscle tissue before and after a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp following 8-week supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (1.8 g/day) with or without a supplement of fish gelatin (FG) (25 % of daily protein intake) in 16 obese insulin-resistant subjects. Results indicate that approximately 5 % (1932) of expressed transcripts were significantly changed after the clamp in both n-3 PUFA and n-3 PUFA + FG supplementation periods. Of these differentially expressed transcripts, 1394 genes associated with enzymes, transcription and translation regulators, transporters, G protein-coupled receptors, cytokines, and ligand-dependent nuclear receptors were modified. Metabolic pathways that were significantly modified included liver X receptor/retinoid X receptors (RXR) activation, vitamin D receptor/RXR activation, interleukin (IL)-8, acute phase response, IL10, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, G-beta/gamma and hepatocyte growth factor and IL6 signaling. Taken together, results suggest that mainly inflammatory and transcription factors are modified following clamp in obese insulin-resistant subjects. Overall, understanding the changes in metabolic pathways due to insulin may be a potential target for the management of insulin resistance.

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