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Clin Res Cardiol. 2012 Oct;101(10):815-27. Epub 2012 May 6.

TNF-α, myocardial perfusion and function in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

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Division of Cardiology, Pulmonary Diseases and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany.



To characterize the time course of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) serum levels along with myocardial perfusion and contractile function in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


Serum levels of TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 42 patients with STEMI before, one and 6 days after successful PCI. Myocardial perfusion was assessed by contrast-enhanced echocardiography (ceEcho), contractile function by unenhanced two-dimensional (2DE) and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. In a subset of 18 patients, infarct size was quantified by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR) on day six.


TNF-α serum levels were in the upper normal range within the first 12 h from symptom onset and increased continuously until day six, while IL-6 and CRP increased subsequently with a peak on day one after STEMI. Serum TNF-α on day one after PCI correlated with perfusion defects, wall motion abnormalities, and infarct size (ceEcho: r = 0.52, p = 0.005; 2DE: r = 0.56, p = 0.002; LGE-CMR: r = 0.83-0.86; p < 0.0001). Using multiple regression linear analysis, infarct size on day six was predicted by serum TNF-α 1 day after PCI (p = 0.006, adjusted R (2) 0.638).


Our data reflect the clinical significance of early TNF-α elevation in patients with STEMI and primary PCI (Controlled Clinical Trials number, NCT00529607).

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