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Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jun 5;46(11):6330-8. doi: 10.1021/es300604p. Epub 2012 May 11.

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl concentrations in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2010.

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3M Company, Medical Department, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States.


Eleven perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were analyzed in plasma from a total of 600 American Red Cross adult blood donors from six locations in 2010. The samples were extracted by protein precipitation and quantified by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). The anions of the three perfluorosulfonic acids measured were perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The anions of the eight perfluorocarboxylic acids were perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Findings were compared to results from different donor samples analyzed at the same locations collected in 2000-2001 (N = 645 serum samples) and 2006 (N = 600 plasma samples). Most measurements in 2010 were less than the lower limit of quantitation for PFBS, PFPeA, PFHxA, and PFDoA. For the remaining analytes, the geometric mean concentrations (ng/mL) in 2000-2001, 2006, and 2010 were, respectively, PFHxS: (2.25, 1.52, 1.34); PFOS (34.9, 14.5, 8.3); PFHpA (0.13, 0.09, 0.05); PFOA (4.70, 3.44, 2.44); PFNA (0.57, 0.97, 0.83); PFDA (0.16, 0.34, 0.27), and PFUnA (0.10, 0.18, 0.14). The percentage decline (parentheses) in geometric mean concentrations from 2000-2001 to 2010 were PFHxS (40%), PFOS (76%), and PFOA (48%). The decline in PFOS suggested a population halving time of 4.3 years. This estimate is comparable to the geometric mean serum elimination half-life of 4.8 years reported in individuals. This similarity supports the conclusion that the dominant PFOS-related exposures to humans in the United States were greatly mitigated during the phase-out period.

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