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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 May;2(5):a006940. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a006940.

HIV Restriction Factors and Mechanisms of Evasion.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom. michael.malim@kcl.ac.uk

Abstract

Retroviruses have long been a fertile model for discovering host-pathogen interactions and their associated biological principles and processes. These advances have not only informed fundamental concepts of viral replication and pathogenesis but have also provided novel insights into host cell biology. This is illustrated by the recent descriptions of host-encoded restriction factors that can serve as effective inhibitors of retroviral replication. Here, we review our understanding of the three restriction factors that have been widely shown to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1: namely, APOBEC3G, TRIM5α, and tetherin. In each case, we discuss how these unrelated proteins were identified, the mechanisms by which they inhibit replication, the means used by HIV-1 to evade their action, and their potential contributions to viral pathogenesis as well as inter- and intraspecies transmission.

PMID:
22553496
PMCID:
PMC3331687
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a006940
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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