Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012 Jul;39(7):630-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2012.05721.x.

'Smoker's paradox' in young patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Author information

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.


1. Of the patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI), smokers are younger than non-smokers, which may be a major confounding factor causing 'smoker's paradox'. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the 'smoker's paradox' in young patients with AMI.2. In all, 1218 young AMI patients (≤ 45 years of age), comprising 990 smokers and 228 non-smokers, were enrolled in the present study. In-hospital and 8 months clinical outcomes were compared between the smokers and non-smokers. 3. Baseline clinical characteristics showed that smokers were more likely to be male (97.9% vs 72.4%; P < 0.001) and had a higher rate of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (71.3% vs 59.5%; P = 0.001) than non-smokers. Clinical outcomes showed that smokers had lower rates of in-hospital cardiac death (0.8% vs 3.5%; P = 0.004), total death (0.8% vs 3.5%; P = 0.004) and 8 months cardiac death (1.1% vs 3.9%; P = 0.006) and total death (1.3% vs 4.4%; P = 0.005) than non-smokers. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that current smoking was an independent protective predictor of 8 months cardiac death (odds ratio (OR) 0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.92; P = 0.037) and total death (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.09-0.82; P = 0.021). Subgroup analysis in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention after AMI showed that current smoking was an independent protective predictor of 8 months total major adverse cardiac events (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.23-0.97; P = 0.041). 4. Current smoking seems to be associated with better clinical outcomes in young patients with AMI, suggesting the existence of the 'smoker's paradox' in this particular subset of patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center